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Measurement modules for Nanonis Tramea


The vast majority of transport measurements requires sweeping of one parameter as a function of one or more other parameters. The Nanonis Tramea software provides 3 modules designed to sweep and step parameters, from a simple arbitrary point-spacing step sequence to an ultrafast multi-axis sweep with automatic SNR optimization.
Custom measurements can also be programmed with the scripting module, within the LabVIEW Programming Interface or in a different programming environment and then controlling Nanonis Tramea through the TCP interface.


3D-sweeper module



This is not only the fastest sweep module by a large margin, but also the one offering the most advanced data and timing optimization options. The module uses the real-time engine of the Nanonis TRC to generate and acquire up to 20'000 points per second on 24 channels in parallel on 2 axes. The third axis operates at lower speed, as it will be used only for stepping signals. In contrast to the first two axes, which can sweep only voltages, the third axis can step any available parameter. This is the only module offering the option to adapt measurement speed based on the input signal value and to adjust measurement speed so that a target signal-to-noise ration can be achieved (intelligent adaptive oversampling). A user selectable slew-rate limiter ensures that sensitive samples are not damaged during a sweep. The user can specify settling and integration times for each point in the measurement as well as for the beginning of each sweep.

This module is ideally suited for the following measurements:

  • Fast and slow voltage sweeps
  • Fast and slow voltage vs. voltage sweeps
  • Voltage vs. Magnetic Field/Temperature/other parameter sweeps
  • Voltage vs. Voltage vs. Magnetic Field/Temperature/other parameter sweeps

Note that "Voltage" can also be any signal which is derived externally from a voltage, for example a current obtained from a voltage-driven constant current source or a large series resistor

The 3D-sweeper supports stepping of external instruments on its 3rd axis when such an instrument is included in the External Devices module.

1D-sweeper module



This module offers one sweep axis and, in contrast to the 3D-sweeper, is not operating on a real-time system. This results in a lower maximum acquisition speed of about 50 points per second (instead of 20'000) but also in higher flexibility. The module can sweep any parameter available in the software including external instruments, setpoints,lock-in frequencies and amplitudes and so on. Additionally, the module offers three different methods of running a sweep:

  • Timed: This is the typical point-by-point measurement type with a fixed number of points and specific settling and integration times.
  • Value reached: In this case the module waits at each point until the target value for the sweep signal has been reached. This is particularly useful when stepping for example magnetic field or temperature
  • Continuous: In this case the module just sets the target value of the sweep signals and acquires data during the ramping. This is particularly suited when sweeping a magnetic field

In contrast to the 3D-sweeper, where the data of each sweep are displayed only at the end of the sweep, the 1D-sweeper displays the measured data point by point. It is therefore ideally suited for:

  • slow voltage sweeps which require following the progression of the signal
  • sweeps of parameters of external instruments (for example magnetic field, temperature, RF power, RF frequency, current, setpoints, ...)
  • sweeps of non-voltage signals like lock-in frequencies and amplitudes, setpoints,...


The 1D-sweeper supports sweeping of external instruments when such an instrument is included in the External Devices module.

nD-sweeper module



This module increases the number of sweep axes. It does not acquire data by itself, but it uses the existing 3D- and 1D sweepers and combines these with 3 additional step axes. As a result, up to 6 axes can be swept/stepped when the nD-sweeper uses the 3D-sweeper for acquiring data, and up to 4 when it uses the 1D-sweeper.

An important difference to the other two modules is that the nD-sweeper allows non-equidistant point spacing. It is possible to upload the steps at which measurements are to be taken using a look-up table (LUT). As an example, this is particularly useful when measuring as a function of temperature as the required resolution will likely decrease with increasing temperature. The same applies to magnetic field.

The nD-sweeper supports stepping of external instruments on all step axes when such an instrument is included in the External Devices module.

 


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